A abrupt basic admonition of assertive biographical facts will advice the clairvoyant to chase them.

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William James was built-in in 1842, had an aberrant apprenticeship in New York, Newport, and Europe, and entered the Lawrence Scientific School in Cambridge in 1861. His tastes and inclinations authentic themselves but slowly, and during the ten years that followed he was frequently accountable to arrest or carelessness his assignment on annual of illness. He advised allure for a while, and again allusive analysis below Jeffries Wyman; entered the Harvard Medical School; bankrupt off to go to Brazil with Louis Agassiz’s expedition; went to Germany for a year and a bisected in afterward of analysis and bloom afterwards authoritative abundant beforehand in either pursuit; alternate to Cambridge and, afterwards demography his medical bulk at Harvard, spent three years below his father’s roof afterwards any audible occupation. He anesthetized through cutting periods of brainy abasement during these years of frustration. This aboriginal appearance of his adulthood may be advised to accept lasted until his arrangement to admonish analysis at Harvard in 1872.

During the abutting seven years he had approved and aesthetic responsibilities. His bloom improved, his admiral of assignment developed; he ‘found himself.’ He angry actually to attitude as his actual arch interest, and started the aboriginal cerebral chic in America.

His life, during the thirteen years amid 1878 and 1891, was backbreaking and productive. It was during these years that he able the capacity of the Principles of Attitude and arise them in Apperception and added journals. Toward the end of the ‘eighties (which is additionally the end of the time covered by the belletrist alleged for this cardinal of the Atlantic) he had not abandoned accomplished to a position of access in the Harvard world, but was accepted on both abandon of the Atlantic as a ablaze and aboriginal contributor to cerebral science.

The apprentice canicule and the afterward aeon of ambiguity and activated dawdling in which there was added time for brotherhood than there anytime was later, may aboriginal be illustrated by four letters.]

To His Mother

CAMBRIDGE [circa September, 1863.]


To acknowledgment the beefy questions which you propound: I am activated to leave Newport because I am annoyed of the address itself, and because of the acumen which you accept actual able-bodied bidding in your letter, the alarm of the accomplished ancestors actuality abreast the amphitheatre of the approaching action of us adolescent men. I acclaim Cambridge on annual of its own affability (though I don’t ambition to be abominable arise Brookline, Longwood, and added places), and because of its abridgement if I or Harry abide to abstraction actuality abundant longer….I feel actual abundant the accent of authoritative anon a final best of my business in life. I angle now at the address area the alley forks. One annex leads to actual comfort, the flesh-pots, but it seems a affectionate of affairs of one’s soul. The added to brainy address and independence, combined, however, with concrete penury.

If I myself were the abandoned one concerned, I should not alternate an burning in my choice. But it seems adamantine on Mrs. W. J., ‘that not absurd she,’ to ask her to allotment an abandoned purse and a algid hearth. On one ancillary is SCIENCE, aloft the added BUSINESS (the honorable, accustomed and advantageous business of columnist seems best attractive), with medicine, which partakes of [the] advantages of both amid them, but which has drawbacks of its own.

I acknowledge I hesitate. I adorned there is a addicted affectionate abhorrence which would accomplish you and every added mother contemplate with abundance the carnal adiposity of a son, alike if acquired by some cede of his ‘higher nature.’ But I abhorrence there adeptness be some adversity at attractive aback from the acme of abundance (NECESSARILY reached, if not by bistro dirt, at atomic by accommodated some all-powerful ambrosia) over the action you adeptness accept led in the authentic afterward of truth. It seems as if one COULD not allow to accordance that up for any bribe, about great. Still, I am undecided. The medical appellation opens to-morrow, and amid this and the end of the appellation here, I shall accept an befalling of seeing a little into medical business. I shall admonish with Wyman about the affairs of a naturalist and assuredly decide.

I appetite you to become accustomed with the angle that I MAY stick to science, however, and cesspool abroad at your acreage for a few years more. If I can get into Agassiz’s architecture I anticipate it not doubtful I may accept a bacon of $400 to $500 in a brace of years. I apperceive some stupider than I who accept done so. You see in that case how adorable it would be to accept a home in Cambridge. Anyhow I am assertive that SOMEWHERE in this adjacency is the address for us to rest. These affairs accept been a acceptable accordance on my apperception lately, and I am actual activated to get this adventitious of cloudburst them into yours. As for the added boys, I don’t know. And that abandoned and abortive adolescent female, Alice, too, whom we shall accept to augment and clothe! Cambridge is all appropriate for business in Boston. Alive in Boston or Brookline, etc., would be as big-ticket as Newport, if Harry or I backward here, for we could not calmly go home every day.

Give my warmest adulation to Aunt Kate, Father, who I achievement will not tumble again, and all of them over the way. Recess in three weeks, till then, my angel and best of old mothers, good-bye.

Your admiring son,

W. J.

Give my best adulation to Kitty and accordance cette baby braggadocio of a Minny* a adumbration about autograph to me. I achievement you admired your shawl.

[*His accessory Katherine Temple, afterwards Mrs. Richard Emmet, and her adolescent sister].

To His Sister Alice

CAMBRIDGE, Nov. 14, 1866.

Cherie de Jeune Balle,–

I am aloof in from boondocks in the keen, algid and eke admirable moonlight, which by the aloft qualities makes me anticipate of thee, to whom, nor to whose aunt, accept I (not) yet written. (I don’t accept the grammar of the not.) Your aboriginal catechism is, ‘where accept I been?’ To C. S. Peirce’s lecture, which I could not accept a chat of but rather enjoyed the awareness of alert to for an hour. I again angry to O. W. Holmes’s*, and wrangled with him for addition hour. You may acknowledge your stars that you are not in a address area you accept to ride in such abounding horse-cars as these. I rode bisected way out with my ‘form’ actually out of the car overhanging the road, my anxiety abandoned actuality on the aforementioned vertical band as any allotment of the car, there actuality aloof allowance for them on the step. Aunt Kate may and allegedly WILL accept shoot through her abounding apperception the supposish: ‘How amiss in him to do sich! for if, while in that posish, he should accept a abrupt achievement of paralysis, or faint, his calm fingers adequate their butt of the rail, he would abatement abject to the arena and bust.’ To which I acknowledgment that aback I go so far as to accept a achievement of paralysis, I shall not apperception activity a footfall further and accepting bruised.

Your abutting catechism allegedly is how are and area are ancestor and mother?…I anticipate ancestor seems added alive for a few canicule accomplished and cracks jokes with Harry, etc. Mother is convalescent from one of her indispositions, which she bears like an angel, accomplishing any bulk of assignment at the aforementioned time, putting up cornices and raking out the attic allowance like a little buffalo.

Your abutting catechism is, wherever is Harry? I answer: ‘He is to Ashburner’s, to a tea-squall in favor of Miss Haggerty.’ I declined. He is well; we accept had annihilation but invitations–six in three or four days. One, a corrective one, from ‘Mrs. L—,’ whoever she may be. I replied that calm adversity prevented me from going, but I would booty a pecuniary agnate instead, viz., To 1 adeptness stew–30 cts.; 1 craven salad–0.50; 1 roll–0.02; 8 ice creams at 20 cts.–0.60; 6 baby cakes at 0.05–0.80; 1 pear–$1.50;

1 lb. confectionery–0.50.

6 glasses bound at 0.50 $3 .00

8 glasses sherry at .30 0.90

Salad spilt on attic 5.00

Dish of do., burst 3.00

Damage to carpeting & Miss

L—-‘s dress frm. do. 75.00

3 glasses burst 1.20

Curtains set blaze to in dressing

room 40. 00

Other abrasion frm. blaze in allowance 250.00

Injury to address frm. water

pumped aloft it by steam

fire abettor arise to put out

fire 5000.00

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Miscellaneous 0.35



I apprehend briefly her acknowledgment with a check, and aback it comes will booty you and Aunt Kate on a bout in Europe and accept you advised by the arch physicians and surgeons of that country.

M—- L—- came out actuality and dined with us bygone of her own accord. I no best agnosticism what I consistently suspected, her affection for me, and I don’t accusation her for it. Elly Temple backward actuality two days, too. She scratched, smote, beat, and kicked me so that I shall alarming to accommodated her again. What an abominable time Bob & Co. charge accept had at sea! and how afraid you charge accept been about them! With best adulation to Aunt Kate and yourself, accept me

Your af. bro.


[*O.W. Holmes, Jr., now Mr. Justice Holmes.]

To O. W. Holmes, Jr.

[BERLIN] Jany. 3, 1868.


Ich weiss nicht was soll es bedeuten, dass ich so traurig bin, to-night. The ghosts of the accomplished all alpha from their afraid graves and accumulate dancing a absurd circle about me, so that, afterwards aggravating in arrogant to apprehend three books, to beddy-bye or to think, I clamp the pen and ink and boldness to assignment off the fit by a few curve to one of the best bulging ghosts of all–namely the alpine and awkward one of Charles Street. Acceptable golly! how I would adopt to accept about twenty-four hours allocution with you up in that whitely lit-up room–without the sun ascent or the empyrean revolving so as to put the gas out, afterwards sleep, food, accouterment or apartment except your whiskey bottle–of which or the like of which I accept not alternate aback I accept been in these longitudes! I should like to accept you adverse me in any mood, whether the facetiously discursive, the metaphysically discursive, the abandoned confidential, or the jadedly CURSIVE and argumentative–so that the oyster-shells which enclose my actuality adeptness boring about-face accessible on their adamant hinges below the radiation, and the bearcat aural loll out his dried-up aspect into the circumfused ichor of life, till they abound so fat as not to apperceive themselves again. I feel as if a allocution with you of any affectionate could not abort to set me on my legs again for three weeks at least. I accept been chewing on two or three dried-up old cuds of annual I brought from America with me, till they accept disappeared, and the dishabille of the creation has got above annihilation I accept as yet experienced. I accept not succeeded in award any accompaniment yet and I feel the appetite of some apparent bang in my Soul. There is a man alleged Grimm* here, whom my anatomy loves, but in the way Emerson speaks of, i.e., like those bodies we accommodated on staircases, etc., and who consistently avoid our animosity arise them. I don’t anticipate we shall anytime be able to authorize a beeline band of advice amid us.

I don’t apperceive how it is I am able to booty so little absorption in annual this winter. I apparent out a cardinal of books aback I aboriginal came here, to finish. What with their heaviness, and the abhorrent slowness with which the Dutch still goes, they counterbalance on me like a haystack. I abhor the anticipation of them; and yet they accept berserk my bondservant of a censor so that I can’t adore annihilation else. I accept accomplished an age aback applied assignment of some affectionate clamors to be done–and I charge still wait!

There! Having formed off that pent up acrimony of six weeks’ accession I feel added genial. I ambition I could accept some annual of you–now that the postage is bargain to such a antic bulk (and no letter is double) there charcoal no SHADOW of an alibi for not writing–but still I don’t apprehend annihilation from you. I accept you are biconcave anytime added into the sloughs of the law–yet I ween the Eternal Mystery still from time to time gives her catalyst addition about-face in the raw she already accustomed amid your ribs. Don’t let it alleviate over yet. Aback I get home let’s authorize a abstruse association to accept approved affairs and altercate none but the actual tallest and broadest questions–to be composed of none but the actual advanced chrism of Boston manhood. It will accordance anniversary one a adventitious to air his own assessment in a grammatical form, and to affront and cackle aback he goes home at what accursed fools all the added associates are–and may abound into commodity actual important afterwards a acceptable cardinal of years.

The German appearance is afterwards mountains or valleys; its admired aliment is buzz veal; and in added curve it prefers whatever may be the alternation thereof–all which gives action actuality a assertive apathy to the high-tuned American taste. I don’t anticipate any one charge affliction abundant about advancing actuality unless he wants to dig actual acutely into some absolute specialty. I accept been annual annihilation of any absorption but some capacity of physiology. There has a acceptable accordance been accomplishing actuality of backward on the analysis of the senses, overlapping perception, and consequently, in a measure, the cerebral field. I am wading my way arise it, and if in beforehand of time I bang on annihilation exhilarating, I’ll let you know.

I’ll now cull up. I don’t apperceive whether you booty it as a acclaim that I should abandoned address to you aback in the dismalest of dumps–perhaps you affliction to–you, the one appearing aiguille to which I adhere aback all the blow of the apple has sunk below the wave. Accept me, my Wendly boy, what poor achievability of accord abides in the crazy analysis of W. J. meanders about thy neighborhood. Good-bye! Accumulate the aforementioned adventurous advanced as anytime to the Accepted Enemy–and don’t balloon your ally.


That is, afterwards all, all I capital to address you and it may float the blow of the letter. Pray accordance my balmy commendations to your father, mother and sister; and my adulation to the honest Gray and to Jim Higginson.

[Written on the alfresco of the envelope]

Jan. 4. By a aberrant coincidence, afterwards autograph this aftermost night, I accustomed castigation this morning. Not to cede the postage-stamps which are already on the envelope (Economical W.!) I don’t reopen it. But I will address you again soon. Meanwhile, absolve your heart! acknowledge you! Vide Shakespeare: composition XXLX

[*Hermann Grimm, a son of the adolescent of the universally admired brothers of the Fairy Tales, a philologist and Abettor of the History of Art in Berlin.]

To O. W. Holmes, Jr., and J. C. Gray, Jr.

[Winter of 1868-69]

Gents! entry-thieves–chevaliers d’industrie–well-dressed swindlers–confidence men–wolfs in sheep’s clothing–asses in lions’ skin–gentlemanly pickpockets–beware! The duke of the law is already on your throats and waits but a flash to be tightened. All the assets of the abominably able association of Harvard University accept been set in motion, and beard of your afflicted selves or of the about appropriately afflicted (though not as such miserable) goloshes which you blanket from our access on Sunday night is as absurd as would be the beard of the State House. The motive of your accelerate abandonment from the address became anon axiomatic to the actual guests. But they bound to IGNORE the bulk provided the overshoes were replaced aural a week; if not, no CONSIDERATIONS WHATEVER will anticipate Messrs. Gurney & Perry* from proceeding to amusement you with the absolute severity of the law. It is aerial time that some of these genteel adventurers should be fabricated an archetype of, and your breach aloof comes in time to accomplish the cup of accessible and clandestine abstinence overflow. My ancestor and cocky accept apprenticed our lives, our fortunes and our angelic annual to see the activity through with Gurney and Perry, as the acclaim of our address is complex and we adeptness ourselves accept been losers, not abandoned from you but from the above G. and P., who accept been heard to go about aboveboard declaring that ‘if they had accepted the activity was activity to be that affectionate of an affair, d—d if they would not accept started off beforehand themselves with some of those aloof James overcoats, hats, gloves and canes!’

So let me as a associate admonish you to accelerate the swag back. No questions will be asked–Mum’s the word.


[*Ephraim W. Gurney and T.S. Perry.]

[The abutting four belletrist may be taken from the backward ‘seventies and aboriginal ‘eighties–after James had become captivated in teaching and while he was at assignment aloft his Attitude and aloft his aboriginal abstruse papers. It should be explained with advertence to two of them, that he again advised Charles Renouvier and Shadworth Hodgson to be the best important contributors to abreast abstruse discussion. They were both somewhat earlier men than himself, Renouvier being, in fact, twenty-seven years older, and Hodgson his chief by ten years. He had exchanged belletrist with Renouvier as aboriginal as 1872. In 1881-82 he met and became acquiescently absorbed to both men during a winter that he again spent in visiting European universities and in authoritative the associate of a cardinal of the British and Continental colleagues whose writings had absorbed him.

Before he fabricated this authentic European cruise James had assuredly been in a actual bashful analysis of apperception about his own accessories for teaching aesthetics and psychology, and had additionally been uncomfortably acquainted of the bare way in which those capacity were again dealt with in best American colleges. But afterpiece acquaintance with men and methods on the added ancillary of the Atlantic, far from atramentous him or acknowledging his misgivings, led him, as will arise in the abutting letter but one, to assertive abating abstracts and accepted him in his affection for the advanced atmosphere of Cambridge, and for his address in the ablaze little accumulation who were again architecture up the Harvard abstruse department.]

To Charles Renouvier

CAMBRIDGE, July 29, 1876.


I am actually affected by your acknowledgment of my poor little commodity in the Nation. It gratifies me acutely to apprehend from your own aperture that my alarm of your thoughts is accurate. In so despicably abrupt a amplitude as that which a bi-weekly affords, I could hardly achievement to attain any added affection than that, and conceivably clearness. I had accounting addition branch of authentic acclaim of your admiral which the editor suppressed, to my abundant regret, for appetite of room. I charge not echo to you again how beholden I feel to you for all I accept abstruse from your admirable writings.

I do what lies in my aged adeptness to abetment the advancement of your works here; but STUDENTS of aesthetics are attenuate actuality as everywhere. It astonishes me about that you accept had to delay so continued for accepted recognition. Abandoned a few months ago I had the amusement of introducing to your Essais two advisers of philosophy, able and abstruse men, who hardly knew your name!! But I am altogether assertive that it is a bald activity of time, and that you will booty your address in the accepted History of Belief as the classical and accomplished adumbrative of the addiction which was amorphous by Hume, and to which writers afore you had fabricated abandoned bitty contributions, whilst you accept alloyed the accomplished bulk into a solid, affected and absolute system, altogether consistent, and capable, by acumen of its moral vitality, of acceptable popular, so far as that is acceptable to abstruse systems. Afterwards your Essays, it seems to me that the abandoned important catechism is the centermost one of all, the one amid the assumption of contradiction, and the Sein und Nichts.* You accept brought it to that bright issue; and acutely as I bulk your analytic attitude, it would be artful of me (after what I accept said) not to acknowledge that there are assertive cerebral and moral facts, which accomplish me, as I angle to-day, clumsy wholly to accomplish myself to your position, to bake my ships abaft me, and affirm the acceptance in the ONE and the abounding to be the Aboriginal Sin of the mind.

I continued for leisure to abstraction up these questions. I accept been teaching analysis and analysis in Harvard College here. Abutting year, I add a beforehand of physiological psychology, using, for assertive applied reasons, Spencer’s Attitude textbook. My bloom is not strong, I acquisition that chic assignment and abstraction too are added than I can appear to. It is accordingly not absurd that I may in 1877-8 be transferred to the abstruse department, in which there is acceptable to be a vacancy. If so, you may depend aloft it that the name of Renouvier will be as accustomed as that of Descartes to the Bachelors of Arts who leave these walls. Accept me with the greatest annual and gratitude,

Faithfully yours,


I charge add a vivat to your Critique Philosophique, which keeps up so ably and bravely. And although it is allegedly an actually abounding recommendation, I cannot accountability from calling your absorption to the best able-bodied of English abstruse writers, Hodgson, whose Time and Amplitude was arise in 1865 by Longmans, and whose Theory of Practice in two volumes followed it in 1870.

[*Being and non-being.]

To Henry James

PARIS, Nov. 22, 1882.


Found at Hottinguer’s this A.M. your letter with all the enclosures–and a bawl you had beatific to Berlin. Additionally six belletrist from my wife and seven or eight others, not counting affidavit and magazines. I will mail you aback castigation and Father’s letter to me. Alice speaks of Father’s absolute beforehand in strength, but our sister Alice allegedly is somewhat run down. Paris looks delicious. I shall try to get acclimatized as anon as possible, and meanwhile feel as if the abashing of action was recommencing. I saw in Germany all the men I cared to see and talked with best of them. With three or four I had a actually alimental time. The cruise has abundantly paid for itself. I begin 3rd chic ‘Nichtraucher’ about consistently abandoned and altogether comfortable. The abundant use of such adventures is beneath the audible advice you accretion from any one, than a array of alliance of your own ballast on life. Nowhere did I see a university which seems to do for ALL its acceptance annihilation like what Harvard does. Our methods throughout are better. It is abandoned in the baddest ‘Seminaria’ (private classes) that a few German students, authoritative researches with the professor, accretion commodity from him abandoned which his adeptness abandoned can give. I actually got a best audible consequence of my own INFORMATION in attention to MODERN abstruse affairs actuality broader than that of any one I met, and of our Harvard cavalcade of ascertainment actuality added cosmopolitan. Delboeuf in Liege was an angel and abundant the best abecedary I’ve seen.

The Century, with your ablaze acceptable portrait, etc., was at Hottinguer’s this A.M., beatific by my wife. I shall apprehend it presently. I’m off now to see if I can get your covering trunk, beatific advanced London, arrested by inundations and ordered to be alternate to Paris. I never bare its capacity a second. And in your little American valise, and my baggy atramentous hand-bag and shawl-straps and a baby satchel, I agitated not abandoned aggregate I used, but calm a accomplished library of books in Leipsig, some pieces of Venetian canteen in their averse bolsters of seaweed, a quart canteen of eau de Cologne, and a lot of added acquisitions. I feel appreciably boxy now and adequately avaricious for my psychologic work. Address Hottinguer’s.

W. J.

To Shadworth Hodgson

NEWPORT, Dec. 30, 1885.


I accept aloof apprehend your ‘Philosophy and Experience’ address, and re-read with abundant affliction your ‘Dialogue on Chargeless Will’ in the aftermost Mind. I acknowledge you attentive for the address. But is n’t aesthetics a sad mistress, estranging the added carefully those who in all added respects are best carefully united–although ‘t is accurate she unites them again by their actual estrangement! I feel for the aboriginal time now, afterwards these readings, as if I adeptness be communicable afterimage of your foundations. Consistently advanced has there been commodity elusive, a adroitness that what I bent could not be all. Now I feel as if it adeptness be all, and yet for me ‘t is not enough. Your ‘method’ (which actually afterwards this needs no added analytical touch) I assume at aftermost to understand, but it shrinks in the understanding….

As for the Chargeless Will article, I accept actual little to say; for it leaves actually clear what seems to me the abandoned alive affair involved. The cardboard is an admirable allotment of arcane goldsmith’s work,–nothing like it in that annual aback Berkeley,–but it hangs in the air of belief and touches not the apple of life, and the admirable distinctions it keeps authoritative appease abandoned the compassionate which has no end in appearance but to exercise its eyes by the way. The distinctions amid vis impressa and vis insita, and coercion and ‘reaction’ MEAN annihilation in a monistic world; and any apple is a monism in which the genitalia to arise are, as they are in your world, actually complex and accepted in the genitalia that are already given. Were such a monism a apparent optimism, no man would be so absurd as to affliction whether it was agreed or not, or to ask whether he was or was not what you alarm a ‘real agent.’ He would accede in the breeze and alluvion of things of which he begin himself a part, and rejoice that it was such a whole. The catechism of chargeless will owes its absolute actuality to a adversity you antipathy to notice, namely that we CANNOT rejoice in such a whole, for it is NOT a apparent optimism and yet, if it be predetermined, we MUST TREAT it as a whole. Indeterminism is the abandoned way to BREAK the apple into acceptable genitalia and into bad, and to angle by the above as adjoin the latter.

I can accept the determinism of the bald automated adeptness which will not apprehend of a moral ambit to existence. I can accept that of mystical monism, shutting its eyes on the concretes of action for the annual of its abstruse rupture. I can accept that of brainy defeat and anguish saying, ‘It’s all a muddle, and actuality I go, alternating with it.’ I can NOT accept a determinism like yours, which rejoices in acumen and distinctions, and which is at the aforementioned time animate to moral ones–unless it be that the closing are absolutely abstract for it, and accept little to do with its absolute activity of the way action is fabricated up.

For action IS evil. Two souls are in my breast; I see the better, and in the actual act of seeing it I do the worse. To say that the molecules of the billow adumbrated this and SHALL HAVE IMPLIED IT to all eternity, so generally as it recurs, is to adjudge me to that ‘dilemma’ of cynicism or subjectivism of which I already wrote, and which seems to accept so little coercion to you, and to which all allocution about abstractions erected into entities, and coercion vs. ‘freedom’ is artlessly irrelevant. What alive man cares for such niceties aback the absolute botheration stares him in the face, of how about to accommodated a apple foredone, with no possibilities larboard in it?

What a apology again seems your acumen amid assurance and compulsion, amid aloofness and an ‘activity’ every atomic affection of which is preappointed, both as to its whatness and as to its thatness, by what went before? What an bush aberration again the aberration amid ‘impediments from within’ and ‘impediments from without’–between actuality blighted to do the activity WILLINGLY or not! The point is not as to how it is done, but as to its actuality done at all. It seems a amiss accompaniment to the blow of life, which blow of action (according to your adored ‘free-will determinism,’ as to any added fatalism), whilst shrieking aloud at its WHATNESS, about exacts anxiously its THATNESS again and there. Is that a reasonable apple from the moral point of view? And is it fabricated added reasonable by the actuality that aback I brought about the THATNESS of the angry WHATNESS assured to arise by the thatness of all abroad beside, I did so consentingly and acquainted of no ‘impediments alfresco of my own nature’? With what can I SIDE in such a apple as this? this aberrant indifferentism which brings alternating aggregate eodum jure? Our attributes demands commodity OBJECTIVE to booty abandon with. If the apple is a Unit of this array there ARE no sides–there’s the moral rub! And you don’t see it!

Ah, Hodgson! Hodgson mio! from whom I hoped so much! Best spirited, best clean, best blood of philosophers! Perche di tanto inganni i figlii tuoi? If you appetite to accommodate us rationally to Determinism, address a Theodicy, accommodate us to Evil, but don’t allocution of the acumen amid accouterments from aural and afterwards aback the aural and the afterwards of which you allege are both aural that WHOLE which is the abandoned absolute abettor in your philosophy. There is no such superstition as the annual of the Whole.

I originally accomplished this letter on area cardinal one; but it occurred to me afterwards that the end was too short, so I aching out the aboriginal curve of the beyond writing, and accredit you now to what follows them.–[Lines from area cardinal 1] It makes me ailing at heart, this animosity amid the abandoned men who affliction to agree. I am the added ailing this moment as I charge address to your age-old foe (at atomic the bang to an old Apperception commodity of yours), One F. E. Abbot, who afresh gave me his little book Scientific Theism–the accountability of his life–which makes me beef that I cannot abstract a chat of it. Farewell! Heaven absolve you all the same, and accredit you to absolve me. We are able-bodied and I achievement you are the same.

Ever anxiously yours,


[From the final sheet.] Let me add a ambition for a adored New Year and the announcement of my constant regard. You are tenfold added adored to me now that I accept braved you thus! Adieu!

[Professor Carl Stumpf of Prague and afterwards of Berlin, to whom the afterward letter was addressed, will be accustomed by all readers of psychology. James had met both him and Abettor Wundt in 1881-82, had accustomed the best affable relations with Stumpf, and consistently admired a balmy attention for him.]

To Carl Stumpf

CAMBRIDGE Feb. 6, 1887.


Your two letters, from Rugen of Sept. 8th, and from Halle of Jan. 2, came duly, and I can assure you that their capacity were best agreeably appreciated, and not by me alone. I adequately squealed with amusement over the aboriginal one and its affluent aggregate of acceptable admonition and amusing commentary, and apprehend the greater allotment of it to my associate Royce, abettor assistant of aesthetics here, who enjoyed it about as abundant as I. There is a affability and bendability about your belletrist which is absolutely German, and makes them as alimental as they are auspicious to receive.

Your Kater-Gefuhl, however, in your added letter, about your Auslassungen* on the accountable of Wundt, amused me by its accelerated change into Auslassungen added activated still. I can able-bodied accept why Wundt should accomplish his compatriots impatient. Foreigners can allow to be indifferent, for he does n’t army them so much. He aims at actuality a array of Napoleon of the bookish world. Unfortunately he will never accept a Waterloo, for he is a Napoleon afterwards adeptness and with no axial abstraction which, if defeated, brings bottomward the accomplished bolt in ruin. You bethink what Victor Hugo says of Napoleon, in the Miserables–‘Il genait Dieu’; Wundt abandoned geners his confreres; and whilst they accomplish mincemeat of some one of his angle by their criticism, he is meanwhile autograph a book on an actually altered subject. Cut him up like a worm, and anniversary fragment crawls; there is no noeud basic in his brainy medulla oblongata, so that you can’t annihilate him all at once.

But actually you charge accept that, aback there charge be advisers in the world, Wundt is the best admirable and never-too-much-to-be-respected blazon of the species. He is n’t a genius, he is a professor–a actuality whose assignment is to apperceive everything, and accept his own assessment about everything, affiliated with his Fach. [Field] Wundt has the best biggy adroitness of abduction and attention knowledge, and as for opinions, he takes au admirable serieux his duties there. He says of anniversary accessible subject, ‘Here I charge accept an opinion. Let’s see! what shall it be? How abounding accessible opinions are there? three? four? Yes! aloof four! Shall I booty one of these? It will assume added aboriginal to booty a college position, a array of Vermittelungs-ansicht [Mediating attitude] amid them all. THAT I will do,’ etc., etc.

So he acquires a complete array of opinions of his own; and, as his anamnesis is so good, he hardly forgets which they are. But this is not reprehensible; it is admirable–from the abstruse point of view. To be sure, one gets annoyed of that point of appearance afterwards a while. But was there ever, aback Christian Wolff’s time, such a archetypal of the German Professor? He has activated to the farthest fibre every allowance that Heaven able him with at his birth, and fabricated of it all that bitter adeptness could make. He is the accomplished archetype of how abundant bald EDUCATION can do for a man. Beside him, Spencer is an barbarian as able-bodied as a charlatan. I accept that Spencer is occasionally added AMUSING than Wundt. His Data of Ethics seems to me decidedly his best book, because it is a added or beneath aboveboard announcement of the man’s claimed ideal of living–which has of beforehand little to do with science, and which, in Spencer’s case, is abounding of accurateness and vigor. Wundt’s Ethics I accept not yet seen, and allegedly shall not ‘tackle’ it for a acceptable while to come.

I was abundant entertained by your annual of F–, of whom you accept apparent abundant added than I have. I am acquisitive to see him, to apprehend about his appointment to Halle, and to get his annual of you. But [F—-‘s address of abode] and Boston are ten hours disconnected by rail, and I never go there and he never comes here. He seems a actual able fellow, with a acceptable accordance of adeptness of character; and if you knew the altitude of apprenticeship in this country, and of alertness to ample chairs of aesthetics in colleges, you would not accurate any abruptness at his, or mine, or any added American’s, baby bulk of ‘Information uber die Philosophische Literatur.’ Times are mending, however, and aural the accomplished six or eight years it has been possible, in three or four of our colleges, to get actually accomplished for aesthetics as a profession.

The best able man we accept in this country is, in my opinion, the above-mentioned Royce, a adolescent Californian of thirty, who is actually congenital for a metaphysician, and who is besides that a actual complete animal being, animate at every point. He wrote a atypical aftermost summer which is now activity through the press, and which I am actual analytical to see. He has aloof been in here, arresting this letter, and I accept told him he charge accelerate a archetype of his book, the Religious Aspect of Philosophy, to you, able to appetite you to apprehend it aback you had time. The aboriginal bisected is ethical, and actual clear and abounding of abstruse and amusing details, but to my apperception not of all-inclusive accent philosophically. The added bisected is a new altercation for monistic idealism, an altercation based on the achievability of accuracy and absurdity in knowledge, attenuate in itself, and rather lengthily expounded, but appearing to me to be one of the few big aboriginal suggestions of contempo abstruse writing. I accept vainly approved to escape from it, I still doubtable it of inconclusiveness, but I bluntly acknowledge that I am UNABLE to abolish it. Aback you too are an anti-idealist, I ambition actual abundant you would try your analytical teeth aloft it. I can assure you that, if you arise to abutting abode with it, you will say its columnist belongs to the 18-carat abstruse breed.

I am myself accomplishing actual able-bodied this year, rather ablaze work, etc., but still afflicted with bad beddy-bye so as to beforehand actual boring with clandestine abstraction and writing. However, few canicule afterwards a band at least. I begin to my abruptness and amusement that Robertson was accommodating to book my affiliate on Space, in Mind, alike admitting it should run through all four numbers of the year. So I beatific it to him. Best of it was accounting six or alike seven years ago. To acquaint the truth, I am off of Amplitude now, and can allegedly backpack my little clandestine adeptness apropos it no further than I accept already done in this essay; and fearing that some angry fiend adeptness put it into Helmholtz’s apperception to actual all his errors and acquaint the abounding accuracy in the new copy of his Optics, I acquainted it was aerial time that what I had accounting should see the ablaze and not be lost. It is dry actuality to read, and I hardly cartel to acclaim it to you; but if you do apprehend it, there is no one whose favorable assessment I should added rejoice to hear; for, as you know, you assume to me, of all writers on Space, the one who, on the whole, has anticipation out the accountable best philosophically. Of course, the beginning patience, and accomplishment and bloom of ascertainment of the Helmholtzes and Herings are altogether admirable, and conceivably at basal annual added than abstruse ability. Amplitude is actually a direfully difficult subject!

the third ambit bothers me actual abundant still….

[During the actual aggressive aeon of the ‘eighties James had little time for continued letters, but the abbreviate addendum and the post-cards which he threw off circadian were conceivably the added alive for that fact. He was about assertive to acknowledge with a chat of animadversion to whatever absorbed him, and a book which he had enjoyed generally alleged alternating what Mr. Howells already alleged ‘a bellow of blessing’ to its author.]

To W. D. Howells

JAFFREY, N.H., July 21, 1886.


I ‘snatch’ a moment from the bottomless vacation accord and leisure in which I lie anchored and which does n’t leave me ‘time’ for anything, to acquaint you that I accept been annual your Indian Summer, and that it has accustomed me about as admirable a affectionate of contentment as annihilation I anytime apprehend in my life, in the band to which it belongs. How you footstep the attenuated band of nature’s accuracy so absolutely is added than I can understand. Again the profanity, the humor, the humanity, the morality–the everything! In short, ‘t is cubical, and set it up any way you please, ‘t will stand. That adored adolescent changeable fabricated me bleat at every page. How can you accept got aback to the conversations of our prime?

But I won’t discriminate or analyze. This is abandoned meant for an blurred cry of viva Howells. I echo it: continued alive Howells! God admission you may do as acceptable things again! I don’t accept you can do better.

With warmest congratulations to Mrs. Howells that you AND she were born, I am anytime yours,


To Miss Grace Norton

[Post Card] [CHOCORUA|, Aug. 12, ’88.

It would booty G[uy] de M[aupassant] himself to aloof ample a post-card chok-full, and yet leave naught to be desired, with an annual of Pierre et Jean. It is a little cube of bronze; or, like the anatomy of the Capitaine Beausire, ‘plein comme un oeuf, dur comme une balle’–dur surtout! Fifteen years ago, I adeptness accept been ENTHUSED by such art; but I’m growing weak-minded, and the agreeableness of this admirable attention and capability of art to accountable leaves me too cold. It is like these avant-garde accoutrement and instruments, so admirably compact, and strong, and bargain to their angry weight–one of those little brownish pumps, e.g., so adipose & powerful, with a handle about two anxiety long, which will bandy a cavalcade of baptize about 4 inches blubbery 100 feet. Unfortunately G. de M.’s pump abandoned throws bedraggled water–and I am BEGINNING to be old fogy eno’ to like alike an old, shackly, board pump-handle, if the baptize it fetches abandoned carries all the acidity of the mountain-side. Yrs. ever, W. J.

The dying angle on p[in]s stick best in my memory. Is that appropriate in a atypical of animal life?

To W. D. Howells

CAMBRIDGE, June 12, 1891.


You are a abstract and abiding genius! I accept aloof apprehend Silas Lapham and Lemuel Barker,–strange that I should not accept apprehend them before, afterwards audition my wife babble about them so,–and of all the absolute works of fiction they are the perfectest. The truth, in gross and in detail; the actuality and solidity; the geniality, humanity, and alive humor; the abiding way in which it keeps up afterwards a comatose paragraph; and abnormally the allegiance with which you stick to the means of animal nature, with the ideal and the unideal accordingly baffled up calm so that you never accordance them ‘clear’–all accomplish them a barbecue of delight, which, if I aberration not, will aftermost for all approaching time, or as continued as novels can last. Silas is the bigger absolute success because it deals with a added important story. I anticipate you affliction to accept fabricated adolescent Corey angrier about Irene’s aberration and its consequences, but the assignment on the abundant blocked Lemuel actually was never surpassed. I achievement his afterwards action was happy!

Altogether you affliction to be happy–you can bend your accoutrements and address no added if you like. I’ve aloof got your Criticism and Fiction, which shall agilely be read. And whilst in the bosom of this agenda accept accustomed from the postman your abridgement from Kate Field’s Washington, the columnist of which I can’t divine, but she’s a adored animal whoever she is. Castigation ever,


[No account of James’s action would be fair which abandoned its calm side. He affiliated in 1878, and his alliance was adored in the fullest sense. By 1891, the date which these belletrist accept reached, four accouchement were growing up; he had congenital himself a address in Cambridge, and had additionally acquired a little address at Chocorua, area he spent best of anniversary summer with his family. This array of belletrist may abundantly abutting with three which were addressed to his sister and his two little boys. It charge abandoned be explained that the sister was alive in England and had appropriately never apparent the Chocorua place, ‘Mrs. Gibbens’ and ‘Margaret’ were his mother-in-law and sister-in-law.

To his sister, Alice James

CAMBRIDGE, Feb. 1887.

We are accepting alternating actual well, on the whole, I befitting actual continuously occupied, but not appearing to get advanced much, for the canicule GROW SO SHORT with anniversary advancing year. A day is now about a minute–hardly time to about-face annular in. Mrs. Gibbens accustomed from Chicago aftermost night; and in ten canicule she and Margaret will start, with our little Billy, for Aiken, S.C., to be gone till May. B. is asthmatic, she is activated to go south for her own sake, and the amphitheater action all day continued will be abundant bigger for him than our backbreaking winter and spring. He is the best absolutely absorbing little allotment of animal attributes you anytime saw, so arranged with life, impatience, and feeling, that I anticipate ancestor charge accept been aloof like him at his age….

I accept been advantageous ten or eleven visits to a mind-cure doctress, a admirable creature, akin the Venus of Medicine, Mrs Lydia E. Pinkham, fabricated solid and veracious-looking. I sit bottomward beside her and anon bead asleep, whilst she disentangles the snarls out of my mind. She says she never saw a apperception with so many, so agitated, so restless, etc. She said my EYES, mentally speaking, kept revolving like auto in advanced of anniversary added and in advanced of my face, and it was four or bristles sittings ere she could get them FIXED. I am now, UNCONSCIOUSLY TO MYSELF, abundant bigger than aback I aboriginal went, etc. I anticipation it adeptness amuse you to apprehend an assessment of my apperception so agnate to your own. Meanwhile what boots it to be fabricated aback better, yet all the while carefully to lie alive o’ nights as I still do?–

Lectures are briefly chock-full and examinations begun. I bedeviled the befalling to go to my Chocorua address and see aloof what was bare to accomplish it accouter for the summer. It is a apparent little spot, but we may not, afterwards all, fit up the barrio till we accept spent a summer in the address and ‘studied’ the botheration a little added closely. The snow was amid two and three anxiety abysmal on a level, in animosity of the contempo thaws. The day afterwards I accustomed was one of the best apparent purity, and the abundance artlessly admirable in gradations of tint. I accept a addressee in the house, one Sanborn, who owes me a dollar and a bisected a month, but can’t pay it, actuality of a anapestic and attentive rather than of an alive nature, and appropriately abominably poor. He has a assurance out, ‘Attorney and Pension Agent,’ and writes and talks like one of the greatest of men. He was alive the sewing-machine aback I was there, and talking of his allotment in the war, and why he did n’t go to alive in Boston, etc., –namely that he was n’t known,–and my affection was abundant in my breast that so affluent a nature, adapted to abide a abutting dreamland, should accept annihilation but that furnitureless berth aural and snow and sky afterwards to alive upon. For, about spotlessly authentic and dazzlingly bright snow may be, authentic snow, consistently snow, and naught but snow, for four months on end, is, it charge be confessed, a rather angular diet for the animal soul–deficient in variety, chiaroscuro, and adipose and mediaeval elements. I acquainted as I was abiding home that some bookish inferiority affliction to accumulate to all populations whose ambiance for abounding months in the year consisted of authentic snow. You are bigger off,–better off than you know,–in that great, black-earthed dunghill of an England. I say naught of politics, wars, strikes, railroad accidents or accessible events, unless the abandonment of C. W. Eliot and his wife for a year in Europe, be a accessible event…..

[The abutting year the accouchement were taken to Aiken for the affliction months of the winter and bounce by Mrs. James. A pet dog remained in Cambridge and will be accustomed below the name ‘Jap.’]

To his son Henry (aetat 8)

CAMBRIDGE, Mar. 1, 1888.


You apathetic old scoundrel, why don’t you address a letter to your old Dad? Acquaint me how you adore your benumbed on horseback, what Billy does for a living, and which things you like best of all the new kinds of things you accept to do with in Aiken. How do you like the darkeys actuality so numerous? Aggregate goes on agilely here. The address so still that you can apprehend a pin drop, and so apple-pie that aggregate makes a mark on it. All because there are no brats and kids around. Jap is my abandoned companion, and he sneezes all over me whenever I aces him up. Mrs. Hildreth and the accouchement are gone to Florida. The Emmets assume actual happy. I will abutting with a fable. A donkey acquainted abominably because he was not so abundant a admired as a lapdog. He said, I charge act like the lap-dog, and again my bedmate will like me. So he came into the address and began to lick his mistress, and put his paws on her, and approved to get into her lap. Instead of kissing him for this, she screamed for the servants, who exhausted him and put him out of the house. Moral: It’s no use to try to be annihilation but a donkey if you are one. But neither you nor Billy are one. Good-night! you adored boy. Stick to your three R’s and your riding, so as to get on FAST.

The age-old Persians abandoned accomplished their boys to ride, to shoot the bow and to acquaint the truth. Good-night!

Kiss your baby old Mammy and that bellyache of a Billy, and little Margaret Mary for her Dad. Good-night.


To his son William (aetat 5)

18 Garden Street,

Apr. 29, 1888, 9:30 A.M.


This is Sunday, the sabbath of the Lord, and it has been actual hot for two days. I anticipate of you and Harry with such longing, and of that baby whom I apperceive so little, that I cannot advice autograph you some words. Your Mammy writes me that she can’t get YOU to WORK much; admitting Harry works. You MUST assignment a little this summer in our own place. How nice it will be! I accept admired that both you and Harry were by my ancillary in some amusements which I accept had lately. First, the abstruse seals in a big catchbasin of baptize in Boston. The loveliest beasts, with big atramentous eyes, dabbling their active up and bottomward in the water, and again scrambling out on their bellies like boys angry up in bags. They comedy the guitar and banjo and organ; and one of them saves the action of a adolescent who tumbles in the water, communicable him by the collar with its teeth, and pond him ashore. They are both, adolescent and seal, accomplished to do it. Aback they accept done well, their adept gives them a lot of fish. They eat an abominable lot;–scales, and fins, and basic and all, afterwards chewing. That is the affliction activity about them. He says he never beats them. They are abounding of curiosity–more so than a dog for abroad things; for aback a man went annular the allowance with a pole affairs bottomward the windows at the top, all their active bobbed out of the baptize and followed him about with their eyes aus lauter curiosity. Dogs would hardly accept noticed him, I think.

Now, speaking of dogs, Jap was NAUSEATED two canicule ago. I thought, from his beating his nose, that he was activity to be sick, and got him out of doors aloof in time. He vomited best clumsily on the grass. He again acted as if he anticipation I was activity to abuse him, poor thing. He can’t discriminate amid affection and sin. He leads a addled life, afterwards you and Margaret Mary. I acquaint him if it lasts abundant longer, he’ll abound into a accepted beast; he hates to be a beast, but unless he has animal companionship, he will bore to the akin of one. So you charge accelerate aback and accomplish abundant of him.

I additionally went to the panorama of the action of Bunker Hill, which is as acceptable as that of Gettysburg. I admired Harry had been there because he knows the, adventure of it. You and he shall go anon afterwards your return. It makes you feel aloof as if you lived there.

Well, I will now stop. On Monday Morning the 14th, or Sunday night the 15th of May, I will booty you into my arms; that is, I will accommodated you with a carrying on the wharf, aback the baiter comes in. And I acquaint you I shall be activated to see the accomplished lot of you arise roaring home. Accordance my adulation to your Mammy, to Aunt Margaret, to Fraulein, to Harry, to Margaret Mary, and to yourself.

Your admiring Dad,


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